The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT scan) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing spondylodiscitis and its complications, such as epidural and paraspinal abscesses.From January 2006 to August 2013 patients with a clinical suspicion of spondylodiscitis, with an infection, or with fever of unknown origin were retrospectively included if (18)F-FDG-PET/CT and MRI of the spine were performed within a 2-week time span. Imaging results were compared to the final clinical diagnosis and follow-up data were collected.Sixty-eight patients were included of whom 49 patients were diagnosed with spondylodiscitis. MRI showed an overall sensitivity of 67Ã¯Â¿Â½\% and specificity of 84Ã¯Â¿Â½\%. Diagnostic accuracy was 58Ã¯Â¿Â½\%, when MRI was performed within 2Ã¯Â¿Â½weeks after the start of symptoms and improved to 82Ã¯Â¿Â½\%, when performed more than 2Ã¯Â¿Â½weeks after onset of symptoms. (18)F-FDG-PET/CT showed a sensitivity of 96Ã¯Â¿Â½\% and a specificity of 95Ã¯Â¿Â½\%, with no relation to the interval between the scan and the start of symptoms.As compared to MRI, (18)F-FDG-PET/CT has superior diagnostic value for detecting early spondylodiscitis. After 2Ã¯Â¿Â½weeks both techniques perform similarly.