Department of Tumor Immunology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Cellular therapy can be defined as the transplantation of living cells for the treatment of medical conditions. Three main objectives of cellular therapy are regeneration of damaged tissue, replacement of function by secretion of biologically active molecules, and redirection of aberrant processes. Given the complex nature of these approaches, in vivo tracking of the transplanted cells is critical to evaluate their potential benefit and to optimize treatment strategies. Recent advances are reviewed that enable in vivo cell tracking as an important adjunct to implement cellular therapy in clinical practice.